庭園内胡座茶席について

Agura (cross-legged) Tea Ceremony

胡坐茶会

この茶席は胡座茶会と名付けられる新しい形式の茶会のためのものです。千利久はもとは胡座形式にて茶会を開いていたとされ、日本人の座り方も平安期から鎌倉期を経て江戸初期まで男女貴賤を問わず胡座と立て膝が主流の着座形式でした。江戸初期の三代将軍徳川家光の頃より上下関係を明確化するために男女ともに正座が強要され、女性の着物の幅も寛永の反物規制令により寸法がつめられて立て膝と胡座ができなくなりました。このようにして茶会もまた正座形式で行われる様になりました。喫茶とともに喫煙もまた茶会には必須のもので、伝統的な茶会では形骸化しているとはいえタバコ盆が出てきます。正座は海外から来る多くの来訪者と現代の老若男女にはますます不向きなものとなっており、このままでは廃れていくかもしれません。本展覧会のコンセプトではこうした過去の歴史を知ることで現代のくびきを解き放つこともまた大切なことであると考えます。茶会における胡座も喫煙も歴史に根ざしたものであり、本来は自由な魂に活力を与えるべき美術館のおもてなしの場として展覧会の会期中は美術館庭園内の奥に設けられています。

This is a new type of tea ceremony referred to as Agura (cross-legged) tea ceremony. It is said that Sen no Rikyū (a 16th century tea master, widely regarded as the most important individual in the history of tea ceremony) originally conducted the tea ceremony in an Agura form, and the agura and tatehiza (sitting with one knee drawn up) styles were the most common forms of sitting up until the Edo period (1603 to 1868), through the Heian (794 to 1185) and Kamakura periods (1185 to 1333), regardless of gender or social status. In the early Edo period, from the time of the third Shōgun of the Tokugawa family, Tokugawa Iemitsu, both men and women were compelled to sit in the seiza style (kneeling on both legs, with the top of the feet flat on the floor) in order to make the hierarchical relationships between people clearer, and a decree during the Kan’ei era (1624 to 1644) reduced the width of a woman’s kimono resulting in the tatehiza style of sitting becoming impossible. Consequently, the tea ceremony came to be held in the seiza style. Having tobacco together with the tea is also an essential part of the tea ceremony, and so there is also a tobacco tray, even if this has become nothing more than a formality in traditional tea ceremony. Seiza has become more and more unsuitable for international visitors, and modern people of all ages, and may soon go out of use altogether. An important conceptual aspect of this exhibition is to learn the history of the past so that we can also liberate us from any constraints of the present. Sitting agura and smoking are both rooted in the history of tea ceremony, which is provided in a back of the museum’s gardens during the exhibition period as a refreshment space that should allow visitors to invigorate the soul in peace.

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